Advanced tip and techniques
Scotland has over 400 notable salmon rivers, including the Big 4, The River Spey, The River Dee, River Tay and River Tweed. This article describes in detail, the Salmon fishing techniques we use throughout Scotland.
I have fished all over Scotland for 45 years, and been a professional Orvis Endorsed Guide for 18 years. In 2004, I founded Alba Game Fishing and we have grown to become one of Scotland’s foremost provider of fishing trips. We offer tailored fly fishing experiences, for every species, throughout all geographic areas of Scotland.
I decided back in 2004 to quit the corporate world as CEO of a software company in Edinburgh, swapping my suit and Oliver Sweeney shoes, for more appropriate Tweeds and wellies. My idea and ethos for the company, was to create a new type of fishing experience, with focus on customer service, blending fishing with other elements like, delicious lunches, professional photography, high end tackle and transport in quality vehicles.
We pioneered this fishing guiding service, and work tirelessly to fine tune what we do, and improve continuously. Now as I write this in 2022, we have superb team of 21 fishing guides, located throughout Scotland.
- Choosing the right river/ at the right time
- Preparation for your salmon fishing day
- Get into the right mindset to fish for salmon
- Reading a salmon river
- What salmon fly lines to use, flies and sink rate tips to select?
- Techniques and how to fish the fly for Atlantic Salmon
- Playing and releasing a salmon effectively
What are the best salmon rivers in Scotland? (how to select the right river for you?)
How can you predict when the best time is to target each salmon river? The answer is you can’t. You can, however make an educated guess. By studying each river, and how it fishes at differing water levels, and marrying that with fish catch returns and historic data, you can start to draw some fairly accurate conclusions.
This allows us to offers our clients educated choices and the best opportunities, value and experience. Salmon rivers, are of course, an ever changing equation and need constant monitoring, for example, the river can change completely after a heavy flood, so constant monitoring is needed. Your finger needs to be on the pulse.
How to price a days fishing correctly?
I often get asked “how much is a day’s salmon fishing?” which is similar to the question… “how much is a ticket for the FA Cup?” Or “How much is a car?” To price a days salmon fishing, you need to start asking the following questions, to try work out the best options:
What date do you want to fish?
How many anglers and non anglers?
Where will you be based? (if your staying in Fort William don’t ask for a day trip on the Tay)
What is your expected budget? (A champagne beat on the Spey, doesn’t cost lager money)
What experience do you have of Spey casting? (Often none is the best – this way you don’t have to undo bad habits)
What is your main motivation for booking a trip? (Believe it or not, some guests want to focus on scenery, service and the all-round Scottish experience rather than a guaranteed catch)
A client made an enquiry for a salmon fishing day in August. He requested a day on the River Dee. I asked him where he was staying. He said Perth. I asked why the Dee? He said because a friend in the States said it was the best river. I explained the Lower Tay would be a heck of a lot closer to Perth, and more productive in August (and less expensive)and steered him to the Scone Palace fishings at Fishponds. Luckily the day worked out, he caught and released a grilse of 6lb and a salmon of 13lb both on the fly. It doesn’t always work out like that, but it’s great when it does.
How to prepare for a fishing day
My Dad was a Lieutenant Commander in the Royal Navy and one of his well-used mantra’s was “proper planning and preparation prevents piss poor performance”. His wisdom is embedded in my psyche and his ethos underpins everything we do. Starting a day ill-prepared often leads to failure and time spent planning is time seldom wasted.
I confess I do like order, and am obsessive about detail. I like to spend time checking and preparing gear. It’s a vital discipline in the guiding game and trained into our team. A well organised fly box, containing confidence patterns that are appropriate for the river you are targeting. The correct sink tip/ leaders, you wouldn’t want to arrive on the river Thurso in summer, armed with only with 10ft/12ft poly leaders, when what you need are 5ft/6ft instead. Equally don’t turn up to the Tay with a 5ft leader for a 580grain line and a 15ft rod.
Spare life vests and sunglasses in case guests forget there’s (they always do) Check all hook, clip off excess nylon. Freshen up leaders. Check the rod and reel for damage, have plenty of tackle to cover varying scenarios. Bring spare waders.
© Alba Game Fishing
Best way to store tube flies
We use a lot of tube flies on the Big 4 rivers, the Tay, Dee, Tweed and Spey and I learned a great way to store them and get more into a box. Tube flies, Collie dogs, Snaeldas and sun rays are a bit of a nightmare to store, they get damaged, tangled and lose their shape when they get bashed around in storage.
I learned a useful tip from John Richardson, one of our fly tyers. You’ll need a box of clear plastic straws, 8mm diameter. You’ll also need a cheap heat sealing machine. The whole set up can be bought for under £30.00 and it’s a real game changer. Importantly, when you take the flies out of the tube, they are in a perfect shape with no damage and they also dry out on the straws too.
© Alba Game Fishing
Have the right Mindset when fishing
Whilst having the right salmon fishing tackle, and techniques are vitally important, you might as well throw everything in the bin, if you don’t turn up with the right mindset.
Salmon fishing can be a frustrating business, and it’s definitely not for the faint-hearted. My Dad used to say, “Persistence beats resistance” this is salmon fishing in a nutshell.
Buffalo Bill goes fishing
I met an angler on the river once from London, called Bill. To furnish his new found habit, he had splurged his credit card at Farlows tackle shop of Pall Mall in London. He was now armed with the very best rod/ reel/ line/ and waders. Everything looked new, expensive and out of place.
When fishing, and wading, he moved through the water like a buffalo sending shock wave out across the water. Every fish in the pool would have scattered. He then flailed away, thrashing the water into a foam, casting repeatedly in the same spots and clumping around the river bed with the finesse of an elephant. It was grim to watch, and we quietly went as far away from him as possible, making a mental note not to fish, where he had been.
When we arrived in the hut at lunch time, Buffalo Bill had ran out of steam, and was sat in the hut, on his phone, killing the mood by conducting business. The sanctuary and tranquility of the hut, was broken. We all come fishing to escape and switch off. To disconnect from noise and enjoy the moment. Be present.
The point is, that anyone hunting for for wild salmon should treat the challenge with respect and quietude, in a similar way to stalking a Stag. You have to move with stealth and focus, and enjoy the connection with your environment. You have to switch the devices off.
Your mindset should be like a hunter, relaxed and focused. It’s almost a zen like state, with pure focus and a clear head. I promise you, if you try this, you will catch more fish, it gives you confidence, and that is a vital component when salmon fishing.
Cast within your boundaries
It’s good practice not to over stretch your cast, and fish within your limits. A 60ft cast with delicate presentation will defeat a 80ft cast with a heavy landing. More than everything, you must quietly believe that at any moment, each cast might catch a fish, and stay true to this belief. For every cast that doesn’t catch a fish, and there will be many, just quietly shift focus on to the next cast. Stay focused, stay positive and treat the salmon with the respect it deserves.
How to read a river
Now we are starting to get into the nitty gritty. Reading the river is so important and this helps you understand where the salmon lies are and at what river heights. I fish the River Teviot in winter for grayling and whilst this is one of my great passions, I am also using this time to work out where all the salmon lies are.
The Teviot is also a great salmon river in it’s own right and sometimes a worthy alternative when the Tweed is unfishable. The salmon lies are easy to spot in gin clear water and you can spot the depressions in gravel behind boulders. Consider also resting spots that still offer good oxygen, and deeper channels where fish might run and get protection from predators.
I cannot stress enough the importance of gleaning knowledge from the resident ghillie. Treat these professionals with respect they deserve, and they will look after you too. Respect their knowledge, they live and breathe the river every day and they know where the fish get caught.
A good ghillie will also understand where fish will be on differing river levels. Yes you can usually work this out if your a competent salmon angler, but there’s always spots that will take you by surprise. The ghillie will know where they are. Equally if you have a guide, who fishes a river regularly he too will know the best tactics.
What lines, flies and poly leaders to use on salmon Rivers?
It can be confusing deciding what fly line to use on a salmon rod. And knowing the differences between Standard Spey, Skagit, Short Spey (Scandi), Spey and Shooting head lines can be a challenge.
Standard Spey Lines
When I learned to Spey cast all those years ago (1980’s) my tutor insisted in using a 65ft head Spey line. This is known as a Standard Spey line in Scotland. In fact in the 1980’s we were still probably 15 or 20 years away from the advent of Scandi, Skagit and Shooting head lines.
Learning on a 65ft head Spey line is a great way to learn the basics, and a great examiner of your technique. These lines also offer the best presentation. They present the fly with more delicacy than the shorter and more aggressive lines. A 65ft head Spey Line also allows easy mends on the line, when controlling a drift.
Short Spey Lines (Scandi)
Spey Lines with a short head are sometimes referred to as Scandi Head lines. They have a shorter length head than a spey line. The weight of the head is to the rear of the line, for example 43ft in length (as opposed to 65ft) Scandi lines come integrated (better) and looped to a running line. The head as a longer more graduated taper and therefore better for presentation. However they are not ideal for throwing heavier sink tips, poly leaders leaders and heavy flies. They are also easier to cast than a standard spey and ideal for smaller flies.
Skagit heads have a more aggressive taper and a lot more mass at the tip of the flyline. The Skagit head is ideal for heavier sink tips and Skagit Heads of varying sink rates can be attached loop to loop. Skagit lines are ideal for casting large weighted flies.
In simple physics mass moves mass. A heavier head Skagit will turn over heavier tip and your fly with a lot more easier than a Short Spey Line. These are also easy to cast, and your guide can get you up and running safely and quickly for an enjoyable day on the river.
Shooting Head lines
Have a short, denser section of fly line attached to a thinner running (shooting) line. This offers offering minimal resistance, and drag on the head in flight. With the head positioned outside the rod tip, the cast will pull the thinner running line through the guides. Choosing a running line can be as important as head choice. Pick a running line that is easy to handle and does not suffer from too much memory.
Here are some benefits of a shooting head system:
- Quick loading, requiring minimal false casting.
- Effective in confined spaces or when back cast room is limited.
- They punch well through the wind.
- Like a Skagit, Shooting heads provide more mass, handling heavier or larger flies easily
- Basically a shooting head allows you to cast further, with less effort.
- Flexibility of loops to loop different heads quickly, without changing over spools / reels.
Why does a salmon take a fly?
You will sometimes hear guides and ghillies say that fly presentation is more important than choice. Maybe so, but it shouldn’t be ignored that fly choice can be the game changer. Let’s start by asking why a salmon takes a fly? After all as soon as they enter freshwater, they do not feed. So why would a salmon bite a bunch of thread and feathers? Here are a few reasons we’ve worked out:
A salmon has no hands, so if something interesting appears in front of it it might be tempted to ‘mouth’ the object out of curiosity
Spawning fish are territorial and aggressive at time. A fly might just piss off the salmon enough to force it to grab the fly out of aggression.
Pavlov’s Conditioned Response
A salmon fly might resemble a food source that it fed on in the ocean, i.e. a sun-ray (sand eel) and Shrimp pattern Red Francnsnaelda. This behaviour is more prevalent, then the fish first enter the rivers with the saltwater feeding behaviours still fresh in their minds.
Nobody can explain this one. Your client completely flops a cast, the fly lands in a heap with the tippet like a bowl of spaghetti, the salmon takes the fly!?
Consider also which colour flies work well in different water colours, if the water is peaty and dark brown like some of the West Coast spate rivers then often the patterns differ to the clearer rivers.
The difference between Versileaders/ Polyleaders
Selecting the right Versileaders, Sink Tips or poly leaders is as important as fly choice and presentation. If you’re not fishing the flies at the right level, you’re not in the game.
Let’s define the name firstly, that’s easy. Versileaders refers to the Rio range of tips, and Poly Leaders are the Airflo brand. These are essentially tapered leaders which are either coated with a tungsten material of varying densities, or a plasticised material for floating. A sink tip is generally a faster sinking tips, looped on to the end of a fly line.
Common sense applies to what tip to use with what rod and line. For example a # 8 weight Scandi line is going to struggle to cast the very heavy sink tips or Versileaders, and there will be some hinging on the cast stroke. This is because the Scandi head tapers and there is no mass at the end to move the heavier tip.
Here is the range of Versileaders and sink rate offered by Rio for Salmon/ Steelhead:
Best tippet material for salmon
No one tippet is the best, fact. It depends on the colour tint of the water you are fishing and the topography of the river. In most cases I use Maxima as its tried and tested and has a degree of stretch/ elasticity, which in my opinion is better than fluorocarbon tippet which is brittle and more likely to snap under sudden strain.
I use 15lb breaking strain for the bigger rivers (0.37mm diameter) and 10lb (.30mm) for the smaller spate waters. It comes in clear, Chameleon (brown) and Ultragreen. Here are some scenarios to help understand the thought process into what tippet to choose.
River Tay – Open Bankside with no trees – clear day light cloud cover and water running clear – Maxima Clear
River Spey – Closed banksdide surrounded by trees, water running peat coloured – Maxima Chameleon
River Tweed – Sunny day, clear water – Maxima Aquagreen
What you are looking for is the line most invisible in the water and against the skyline. Be tactical, think it through and don’t be a one trick pony.
© Alba Game Fishing
Techniques to fishing a Salmon Pool
Now assuming you have all the aforementioned components in place, you’re approaching a pool and ready to go.
Approach the pool with caution and stealth, think very carefully about where the salmon lies are and your approach. Stay quiet and stealthy. You are stalking a wild beast that has made an incredible journey and is a miracle of nature, so show it the respect it deserves.
How to wade safely in a big river
You should wade only deep enough to give you an anchor point for your spey cast. Avoid deep wading and disturbing fish. I see it all the time, anglers almost standing as deep as where the fish would run. If you can fish a pool from the bank without wading I would always recommend this. If you do need to wade, go slowly and easy, like you were sniper approaching a vantage point. Also never wade somewhere you can put your fly through first.
Be your salmon fly and imagine in your minds eye the fly swimming under the water. It’s vital that you are swinging the fly with control of the fly at all times, and that there are no belly’s in the line and drags. The fly should swing even and true and you should target the pool with precision and optimism. On occasions a skated fly or a fly cast across the stream and ripped back quickly will work if fishing a sun ray or a hitched fly, but be aware of the technique you are fishing and the method you are using and stay in control.
How to set the hook
After each cast, take a gentle step downstream and allow the fly to swing approx 3 ft below where it was before. Casting a fly repeatedly in the same spot will not convince the salmon to take the fly and this also allows you to cover more water and search out those “taking fish”
Don’t strike – When good tactics induce a take, you have to discipline yourself to react in the correct way. This can be harder for trout fishers, as they are used to “Striking” when they feel a take.
It can take a lot of investment in time, money and effort to create the moment when a salmon takes, so don’t mess it up at this stage. Let the fish take, turn back to its lie and then set the hook properly with side pressure and a grip of the line on the handle or by holding the reel. Once you have hooked a fish like this, let the clutch take over, play the fish, and you have a very good chance of landing it, because the hook is set properly.
Adopt the right tactics
Stay alert and focused to land the fish. Adrenaline will be coursing through you, and senses are working overtime. Stay calm and focused and take as much time as the fish needs. It sounds silly to say this, but play the fish, don’t try and rush it into the net. Some fish come quickly, and others fight like demons, its not often size related and some of the best fights off a salmon have been smaller fish. When retrieving line back on the reel try to do so in a smooth efficient manner, pump the rod smoothly and retrieve on the way down.
It pays to plan ahead and look for slacker water to land the fish. Side pressure is more effective than the rod raised to the sky, and this helps steer the fish to where you would aim to land it. If shallow gravel is nearby, netting a fish is impossible, beach the fish instead. If you have a bit of depth, net the fish, then keep it in the net under water while you compose yourself and unhook the fly and plan for a quick photo.
Capturing the perfect fishing photograph
When fishing catch and release, you would want a good photo, but good pictures require planning. It’s a good idea to ensure your camera settings are correct and in place, before you cast a line. There’s nothing worse than fiddling around with your camera while the poor fish waits, and is put through more stress.
Wrap your forefinger and thumb around the knuckle of the tail and avoid bending the tail against the body. This will put less strain on the tail muscles when you lift the fish up. Rather than gripping the tail you are simply forming a sold loop with your finger and thumb and avoiding squeezing too much. It’s worth also washing your hands in the river prior to handling, do this when the fish is resting in the net, it will help remove bacteria from your skin and transferring it to the fish.
All too often I see fish in November with skin disease and the areas of the fish impacted are where hands of anglers have been during grip and grin photos. Finally cup your hand gently under the belly of the fish and find the centre of gravity, again do not squeeze the belly of the fish, simple lift it up from the net and minimise the time out of the water. I can rattle off a few photos in a matter of seconds with good planning and then be looking to release the fish.
A quick photo before release © Alba Game Fishing
The correct way to release a salmon
Finally, feeling elated and bursting with excitement, the final act of kindness and respect, is releasing the salmon back to its environment, safely and without fuss. Using the same method of holding the fish you adopted for catch and release, hold the fish under water in the stream so that oxygenated water runs through its gills, allow the fish time to recover.
You’ll know when this is, and it varies depending on how long the fish was played out and how strong the fish is. When the fish is ready, it will kick to get away from you. Seeing a these magnificent creatures swim safely back to their element is one of the most rewarding aspects of angling. The King of fish.
So there you have it, front to back, the process of preparing for a day, approaching the water and fishing a pool, catching and releasing. I hope 2021 presents many exciting salmon fishing opportunities for us all, and we can get out on the rivers again and enjoy freedom, open space, camaraderie and good sport. Tight lines and have a great season.